Descriptive Genomic Analysis and Sequence Genotyping of the Two Papaya Species (Vasconcellea pubescens and Vasconcellea chilensis) Using GBS Tools

A genotyping by sequencing (GBS) approach was used to analyze the organization of genetic diversity in V. pubescens and V. chilensis. GBS identified 4675 and 4451 SNPs/INDELs in two papaya species. The cultivated orchards of V. pubescens exhibited scarce genetic diversity and low but significant genetic differentiation. The neutrality test yielded a negative and significant result, suggesting that V. pubescens suffered a selective sweep or a rapid expansion after a bottleneck during domestication. In contrast, V. chilensis exhibited a high level of genetic diversity. The genetic differentiation among the populations was slight, but it was possible to distinguish the two genetic groups. The neutrality test indicated no evidence that natural selection and genetic drift affect the natural population of V. chilensis. Using the Carica papaya genome as a reference, we identified critical SNPs/INDELs associated with putative genes. Most of the identified genes are related to stress responses (salt and nematode) and vegetative and reproductive development. These results will be helpful for future breeding and conservation programs of the Caricaceae family.

Carrasco, B.; Arévalo, B.; Perez-Diaz, R.; Rodríguez-Alvarez, Y.; Gebauer, M.; Maldonado, J.E.;García-Gonzáles, R.; Chong-Pérez, B.; Pico-Mendoza, J.; Meisel LA.; Ming, R.; Silva, H.

Revista: Plants 2022.

Publicado: 18 de Agosto de 2022.




Oleuropein-Enriched Extract from olive mill leaves by Homogenizer-Assisted Extraction and its antioxidant and antiglycating activities

Olive oil consumption has increased in the last two decades and consequently, its wastes have increased, which generates a tremendous environmental impact. Among the by-products are the olive mill leaves, which are easier and inexpensive to treat than other olive by-products. However, little research has been done on their chemical composition and potential bioactivity. Hence, in this study, olive mill leaves were used to obtain Oleuropein-Enriched Extracts (OLEU-EE) using Conventional Extraction, Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, and Homogenization-Assisted Extraction. These three techniques were evaluated using a Factorial Design to determine the parameters to obtain an OLEU-EE with high contents of Total Phenolic Compounds (TPC), Antioxidant Activity (AA), and Oleuropein concentration (OLEU). From the results, the Homogenizer-Assisted Extraction (HAE) technique was selected at 18,000 rpm, solid:liquid ratio 1:10, and 30 s of homogenization with 70% ethanol, due to its high TPC (5,196 mg GA/100 g), AA (57,867 μmol of TE/100 g), and OLEU (4,345 mg of OLEU/100 g). In addition, the antiglycating effect of OLEU-EE on the levels of (1) fluorescent Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) were IC50 of 0.1899 and 0.1697 mg/mL for 1λEXC 325/λEM 440 and 2λEXC 389/λEM 443, respectively; (2) protein oxidative damage markers such as dityrosine (DiTyr), N-formylkynurenine (N-formyl Kyn), and kynurenine (Kyn) were IC50 of 0.1852, 0.2044, and 0.1720 mg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, OLEU-EE from olive mill leaves has different capacities to inhibit AGEs evidenced by the IC50 of fluorescent AGEs and protein oxidation products, together with the scavenging free radical evidenced by the concentration of Trolox Equivalent. Therefore, OLEU-EE could be potential functional ingredients that prevent oxidative damage caused by free radicals and AGEs accumulation.

Katherine Márquez., Nicole Márquez., Felipe Ávila., Nadie Cruz., Alberto Burgos-Edwards., Ximena Pardo., Basilio Carrasco 
Revista: Frontiers in Nutrition
Publicado: 22 de Junio 2022





Succinic acid recovery from a glycerol-based solution using phosphonium ionic liquids supported by COSMO-RS

Succinic acid has been considered a promising chemical building block that can be bio-produced using renewable resources. However, one of the biggest challenges in the bioproduction of this acid is the extraction and purification process. Currently, to extract and improve the purity of the produced succinic acid, a liquid-liquid extraction using organic solvents and extractants is performed. In this work, a liquid-liquid extraction of succinic acid from a model fermentation solution of Yarrowia lipolytica yeast broth (succinic acid + glycerol + water) is studied. The liquid-liquid extraction was carried out using hydrophobic phosphonium-based ionic liquids as extractants, for a 1:1 phase-volume ratio during 24 h at two different temperatures (298.15 K and 310.15 K) measuring the differences in the concentration of succinic acid and glycerol in the aqueous feed phase after 24 h to quantify the extraction percentage and, the succinic acid / glycerol selectivity. To obtain the succinic acid /water selectivity, the water concentration in the IL phase was calculated using Karl Fischer titration. With an extraction percentage of 78.4% for succinic acid and, a selectivity of 103 and 157 respectively for succinic acid /water and succinic acid /glycerol at 310.15 K, the best studied ionic liquid was [P6,6,6,14][PHOS] being 10 times higher than octanol, which is commonly used as a comparative conventional solvent. On the other hand, a molecular simulation of liquid-liquid extraction generated in COSMO-RS, allowed to validate the experimental results, also indicating that the strong hydrogen bond interactions of [P6,6,6,14][PHOS] and succinic acid were responsible for the excellent values obtained. Finally, the dissolved succinic acid in the organic phase was easily removed with an ultra-pure water striping using liquid-liquid extraction at 298.15 K for 40 min with a 1:1 phase-volume ratio.

E.Zurob; D.Rivas; FOlea; A.Plaza; G.Merlet; C.Araya-López; J.Romero; E.Quijada-Maldonado; R.Cabezas.

Revista: Fluid Phase Equilibria 
Publicado: 10 de Abril 2022



Role of Phaseolus vulgaris L. in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases—Cardioprotective Potential of Bioactive Compounds

In terms of safe and healthy food, beans play a relevant role. This crop belongs to the species of Phaseolusvulgaris L., being the most consumed legume worldwide, both for poor and developed countries, the latter seek to direct their diet to healthy feeding, mainly low in fat. Phaseolus vulgaris L. stands out in this area—an important source of protein, vitamins, essential minerals, soluble fiber, starch, phytochemicals, and low in fat from foods. This species has been attributed many beneficial properties for health; it has effects on the circulatory system, immune system, digestive system, among others. It has been suggested that Phaseolus vulgaris L. has a relevant role in the prevention of cardiovascular events, the main cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Conversely, the decrease in the consumption of this legume has been related to an increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. This review will allow us to relate the nutritional level of this species with cardiovascular events, based on the correlation of the main bioactive compounds and their role as cardiovascular protectors, in addition to revealing the main mechanisms that explain the cardioprotective effects regulated by the bioactive components

Rodríguez, L.; Mendez, D.; Montecino, H.; Carrasco, B.; Arevalo, B.; Palomo, I.; Fuentes, E.

Revista: Plants.
Publicado: 11 de Enero 2022.


Chemiluminescence emission in Fenton reaction driven by 1,2-dihydroxybenzenes: Mechanistic approaches using 4-substituted ligands

Fenton (F) and Fenton–like (FL) reactions can be amplified by dihydroxybenzenes (DHBs). These compounds chelate and reduce Fe(III), promoting the hydroxyl radical production (radical dotOH). The products or intermediaries of F and FL reactions driven by DHBs can produce chemiluminescence (CL) with different profiles, depending on the type of DHB involved. In this work, CL produced by F and FL systems driven by different -para substituted DHBs was measured and compared with the reactivity of each system and with the structural parameters of each DHB. CL emission was not related to the reactivity of each studied system but was favored by DHBs substituents with -NHR and –OH groups combined in the branching (NHR-DHBs). PLS multivariate regression models were constructed using computational parameters for each DHB, quinone (Q) and semiquinone (SQradical dot) to find the influence of structural and electronic parameters over CL emission. Analysis showed that in NHR-DHBs, the higher CL exhibited could be explained by cycling ability of these compounds. In DHBs with an electron-donor group (EDG) the CL emission would depend only on the stability of the intermediary species generated by DHB and radical dotOH reaction. While DHBs with electron-withdrawing groups (EWG) showed that CL will increase depending on the stability of the intermediaries by resonance, and by the acidity of the hydroxyl protons of the ring. PLS-SQradical dot showed that spin densities were strongly correlated with an increase in CL emission. DHBs with substituents that favor the delocalization of charge in the SQradical dot to the ramification would enhance CL emission. Meanwhile, when the delocalization is promoted over the DHB-ring, these systems become more reactive, and the CL emission is disadvantaged by quinone formation.

Romina Romero, Katherine Márquez; Francisca J.Benítez; Alejandro Toro-Labbé; Lorena Cornejo-Ponce; Victoria Melín; DavidContreras.

Revista: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry.
Publicado: Diciembre 2021.



Development of silicone-coated hydrophobic deep eutectic solvent-based membranes for pervaporation of biobutano

Hydrophobic Deep Eutectic Solvents (HDES) are considered a relatively novel class of solvents, which show perfect features to incorporate them in pervaporation membranes. Composite HDES membranes offer a separation media, which shows a faster molecular diffusion than polymeric membranes, combining the best properties of liquid and polymer membranes, such a high selectivity with high burst pressure and durability. In this work, the separation of acetone–butanol–ethanol mixtures (ABE) from aqueous solutions, is carried out by pervaporation using membranes prepared with HDES lidocaine-thymol (Lidol) and CH3(CH2)8COOH-Thymol (Decadol), coated with two polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flat sheet membranes. The composite membranes showed improved results for the butanol/water selectivity compared to the single PDMS layer membrane used as a control. The total flux of butanol obtained with the Lidol-based membrane was 2.93 × 10−3 [kg m−2 hr−1]. The total flux of water was 1.22 × 10−4 [kg m−2 hr−1], showing a selectivity value for butanol/water of 1932, while the control membrane had a selectivity value of 6. The results obtained with the composite membranes exhibited a higher and more stable performance in separating butanol from the ABE solution. The improvement in the selectivity can be explained by the synergic effect of the PDMS coating with the HDES layer.

Cabezas, R., Duran, S., Zurob, E., Plaza, A., Merlet, G., Araya-Lopez, C., & Quijada- Maldonado, E.

Revista: Journal of Membrane Science.    
Publicado: 01 de Noviembre 2021.


Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Chilean Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.)

The runner bean is the third most economically important Phaseolus species, which is cultivated on small-scale agriculture for the production of immature pods or to obtain dry seeds. However, despite the economic importance and agronomic potential of this species, the runner bean has been little studied from the genetic standpoint. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to characterize ten selected lines of runner bean obtained from Central (Santiago) and Southern (Valdivia and Villarica) Chile based on morphological and agronomic traits. In addition, the genetic variability of these lines was determined using 12 Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers to evaluate the potential of this germplasm for breeding and commercial purposes. As a result, the lines from Central Chile were characterized, and had a higher number of pods per plant compared to the Southern lines, although the size and weight of their seeds were lower. Moreover, a low level of genetic diversity (He = 0.251) was encountered in this population. Finally, this is one of the first studies that generate relevant and novel information on the morphological, agronomic and genetic characterization of the P. coccineus germplasm present in Chile.

Arriagada O., Schwember A. R., Greve M.J., Urban M. O., Cabeza R. A., Carrasco B.

Revista: Plants 
Publicado: 17 de Agosto 2021